**When I calculate spin wave dispersion using the spinw.spinwave() function, I get the following error message: Hamiltonian matrix is not positive definite, … What is wrong?**

The simple explanation is that the magnetic structure, stored in the spinw.mag_str field, is not the classical ground state of the magnetic Hailtonian defined in the spinw object. To solve this discrepancy, the magnetic structure or the Hamiltonian has to be changed. There is the spinw.optmagstr() function, that can determine the right classical ground state for certain simple cases. However in complex lattices this is not a trivial problem. The spinw.spinwave() function can use two methods to solve the magnetic Hamiltonian. The first method (J. H. P. Colpa, Phys. A Stat. Mech. Its Appl. 93, 327 (1978)) needs the exact ground state, otherwise the algorithm produces an error. If necessary to correct for small numerical errors, a small positive number is automatically added to the diagonal of the quadratic expression of the Hamiltonian. However in certain cases this is not sufficient. In this case spinw.spinwave() function can use the second method, that can “solve” the Hamiltonian even if the magnetic ground state is wrong. Setting the “hermit” option to false, a second method is applied (S. R. White, M. Sparks, and I. Ortenburger, Phys. Rev. 139, A450 (1965)). This gives imaginary values for the spin wave dispersion in case of wrong ground state. The size of the imaginary part of the dispersion can give a hint, how wrong the ground state is. The imaginary part of the dispersion can be plotted using the sw_plotspec() function with the “imag” option set to true and “mode” option to one. This can help to judge, whether the imaginary part of the dispersion is due to numerical error or the proposed ground state is wrong.

**Why does the energy plot come up with positive and negative energy modes?**

The positive/negative spin wave modes belong to the one magnon creation/annihilation processes. Thus every dispersion has a reflected version in the negative energy half plane (magnon annihilation side). You can just ignore the negative energies in most cases. The number of the spin wave modes on the positive energy side should be equal to the number of magnetic atoms in the magnetic supercell.

**When generating the magnetic structure using spinw.genmagstr() function, the program gives a warning: “Warning: In the extended unit cell k is still larger than epsilon!”. Do I have to be concerned about that?**

If you use the ‘nExt’ parameter of the spinw.genmagstr() function that is not equal to [1 1 1] and “mode” option is set to “helical”, the code checks whether the generated magnetic supercell has the right size to properly incorporate your helical magnetic structure. You can omit the warning, if nExt./k is close enough to an integer for your needs. For spin wave calculation in general you can use “nExt” = [1 1 1] option except if you want to do spin wave calculation on a multi-k magnetic structure.